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Articles on this Page
- 08/16/12--08:21: _The decline in puls...
- 03/26/12--14:53: _Pulsatile growth ho...
- 07/30/13--08:12: _Increased adiposity...
- 05/28/12--03:30: _Impairments to the ...
- 10/09/13--07:20: _Hypothalamic distri...
- 12/26/16--16:34: _Hyperphagia in male...
- 12/03/13--04:46: _Growth hormone secr...
- 11/09/13--16:41: _Growth hormone and ...
- 01/30/12--16:06: _GH does not modulat...
- 12/04/15--02:33: _Effect of deletion ...
- 06/01/11--09:40: _Development of a me...
- 01/10/15--16:19: _Actions of NPY, and...
- 12/21/17--09:53: _Dual defects in pul...
- 03/06/18--07:00: _Adolescent Growth: ...
The transition between puberty and adulthood is accompanied by a slowing in linear growth. Although GH is a key factor that drives somatic development into adulthood, early adulthood coincides with a reduction in circulating levels of GH. To this extent, a pathological decline in postpubertal GH secretion is detrimental to attainment of peak lean muscle mass and bone mass and promotes adiposity and increases susceptibility to the development of obesity in adulthood. Here we characterized pulsatile GH secretion in C57BL/6J mice at 12 and 16 wk of age. Deconvolution analysis of these measures reveals a reduction in pulsatile GH secretion between 12 and 16 wkof age. Dietary intervention with high-fat feeding at 8wkof age results in a significant increase in adiposity, the development of glucose intolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. We show the exacerbation of the age-associated decline in pulsatile GH secretion in high-fat-fed mice after 4 wk of dietary intervention (at 12 wk of age), and a further suppression of pulsatile GH secretion by 8 wk of dietary intervention (at 16wkof age). Suppressed pulsatile secretion ofGHdid not coincide with an elevation in circulating free fatty acids. Rather, we observed increased hepatic triglyceride content and an eventual decrease in circulating levels of IGF-I. Given the established role of GH in maintaining healthy aging, we anticipate that an advancing of the age-associated decline in pulsatile GH secretion as a consequence of dietary-induced weight gain may have long-term ramifications on adult health.
Pathological changes associated with obesity are thought to contribute to GH deficiency. However, recent observations suggest that impaired GH secretion relative to excess calorie consumption contributes to progressive weight gain and thus may contribute to the development of obesity. To clarify this association between adiposity and GH secretion, we investigated the relationship between pulsatile GH secretion and body weight; epididymal fat mass; and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), and glucose. Data were obtained from male mice maintained on a standard or high-fat diet. We confirm the suppression of pulsatile GH secretion following dietary-induced weight gain. Correlation analyses reveal an inverse relationship between measures of pulsatile GH secretion, body weight, and epididymal fat mass. Moreover, we demonstrate an inverse relationship between measures of pulsatile GH secretion and circulating levels of leptin and insulin. The secretion of GH did not change relative to circulating levels of NEFAs or glucose. We conclude that impaired pulsatile GH secretion in the mouse occurs alongside progressive weight gain and thus precedes the development of obesity. Moreover, data illustrate key interactions between GH secretion and circulating levels of insulin and reflect the potential physiological role of GH in modulation of insulin-induced lipogenesis throughout positive energy balance.
GH deficiency has been found in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Disrupted endocrine function could contribute to the progressive muscle loss and hypermetabolism seen in ALS. It is not possible to study all the elements of the GH-IGF-I axis in ALS patients. Consequently, it remains unclear whether dysfunctional GH secretion contributes to disease pathogenesis and why GH and IGF-I directed treatment strategies are ineffective in human ALS. The hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model is useful for the detailed investigation of the pathogenesis of ALS. We report that symptomatic male hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice exhibit a deficiency in GH secretion similar to that seen in human ALS. Further characterization of the GH-IGF-I axis in hSOD1(G93A) mice reveals central and peripheral abnormalities that are not found in wild-type age-matched controls. Specifically, we observe aberrant endogenous pulsatile GH secretion, reduced pituitary GH content, and decreased circulating levels of IGF-I, indicating global GH deficiency in hSOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, a reduction in the expression of the IGF-I receptor alpha-subunit in skeletal muscle and lumbar spinal cords of hSOD1(G93A) mice suggests impaired IGF-I signaling within these tissues. This is the first account of disrupted GH secretion in a transgenic mouse model of ALS. These observations are essential for the development of effective GH and IGF-I targeted therapies in ALS. (Endocrinology 153: 3735-3746, 2012)
The age-associated decline in growth hormone (GH) secretion may be a consequence of the reduction in the number of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) positive neurones. However, it remains unclear whether an alteration in the number or distribution of somatostatin (SST) neurones contributes to this change. In the present study, we characterised the role of SST in modulating the change in pulsatile GH secretion in male C57Bl/6J mice throughout puberty and into early adulthood. We assessed pulsatile GH secretion in mice at 4, 8 and 16 weeks of age. These ages correspond to early pubertal, early adulthood and adulthood, respectively. We show an elevation in peak, total and pulsatile GH secretion coinciding with periods of rapid linear growth. Using in situ hybridisation and morphometric methods, we mapped the distribution of Sst mRNA expression within the mouse brain relative to this change in pulsatile GH secretion. The results obtained show that altered pulsatile GH secretion in male mice from 4-16 weeks of age does not coincide with a significant change in the number of Sst mRNA expressing neurones or an abundance of Sst mRNA expression throughout the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and periventricular nucleus (PeV). Rather, we observed a progressive decline in Sst mRNA expressing neurones within subnuclei of the paraventricular nucleus at this time. We conclude that structural changes in Sst expression within the PeV and ARC may not reflect the observed decline in pulsatile GH secretion in mice from puberty into early adulthood.
Key points: Loss of function of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) results in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth. Despite knowing that MC4Rs control food intake, we are yet to understand why defects in the function of the MC4R receptor contribute to rapid linear growth. We show that hyperphagia following germline loss of MC4R in male mice promotes growth while suppressing the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH–IGF-1) axis. We propose that hyperinsulinaemia promotes growth while suppressing the GH–IGF-1 axis. It is argued that physiological responses essential to maintain energy flux override conventional mechanisms of pubertal growth to promote the storage of excess energy while ensuring growth. Abstract: Defects in melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) signalling result in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth. Clinical observations suggest that loss of MC4R function may enhance growth hormone (GH)-mediated growth, although this remains untested. Using male mice with germline loss of the MC4R, we assessed pulsatile GH release and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and/or release relative to pubertal growth. We demonstrate early-onset suppression of GH release in rapidly growing MC4R deficient (MC4RKO) mice, confirming that increased linear growth in MC4RKO mice does not occur in response to enhanced activation of the GH–IGF-1 axis. The progressive suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurred alongside increased adiposity and the progressive worsening of hyperphagia-associated hyperinsulinaemia. We next prevented hyperphagia in MC4RKO mice through restricting calorie intake in these mice to match that of wild-type (WT) littermates. Pair feeding of MC4RKO mice did not prevent increased adiposity, but attenuated hyperinsulinaemia, recovered GH release, and normalized linear growth rate to that seen in pair-fed WT littermate controls. We conclude that the suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurs independently of increased adipose mass, and is a consequence of hyperphagia-associated hyperinsulinaemia. It is proposed that physiological responses essential to maintain energy flux (hyperinsulinaemia and the suppression of GH release) override conventional mechanisms of pubertal growth to promote the storage of excess energy while ensuring growth. Implications of these findings are likely to extend beyond individuals with defects in MC4R signalling, encompassing physiological changes central to mechanisms of growth and energy homeostasis universal to hyperphagia-associated childhood-onset obesity.
GH deficiency is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, therapy with GH and/or IGF-I has not shown benefit. To gain a better understanding of the role of GH secretion in ALS pathogenesis, we assessed endogenous GH secretion in wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice throughout the course of ALS disease. Male wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice were studied at the presymptomatic, onset, and end stages of disease. To assess the pathological features of disease, we measured motor neuron number and neuromuscular innervation. We report that GH secretion profile varies at different stages of disease progression in hSOD1(G93A) mice; compared with age-matched controls, GH secretion is unchanged prior to the onset of disease symptoms, elevated at the onset of disease symptoms, and reduced at the end stage of disease. In hSOD1(G93A) mice at the onset of disease, GH secretion is positively correlated with the percentage of neuromuscular innervation but not with motor neuron number. Moreover, this occurs in parallel with an elevation in the expression of muscle IGF-I relative to controls. Our data imply that increased GH secretion at symptom onset may be an endogenous endocrine response to increase the local production of muscle IGF-I to stimulate reinnervation of muscle, but that in the latter stages of disease this response no longer occurs.
Fasting results in the mobilization of adipose stores and the elevation of levels of free fatty acids (FFA). In humans, this process is driven by a release in GH. Little is known regarding the role of GH in modulating this process during early stages of fasting in the mouse. Confirmation of the role of GH in modulating FFA release in the fasting mouse is of particular importance given the frequent use of mouse models to study metabolic mechanisms. Here, we correlate the initial release of FFA throughout fasting in mice with pulsatile GH secretion. Observations illustrate the rapid release of FFA in response to food withdrawal. This does not correlate with a rise in GH secretion. Rather, we observed a striking loss in pulsatile secretion of GH throughout the first 6 h of fasting, suggesting that GH does not modulate the initial release of FFA in the mouse in response to fasting. This was confirmed in GH receptor knockout mice, in which we observed a robust fasting-induced rise in FFA. We further illustrate the dynamic relationship between the orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones ghrelin and leptin during fasting in the mouse. Our findings show an initial suppression of leptin and the eventual rise in circulating levels of acyl-ghrelin with fasting. However, altered acylghrelin and leptin secretion occurs well after the rise in FFA and the suppression of GH secretion. Consequently, we conclude that although acyl-ghrelin and leptin may modulate the physiological response to drive food intake, these changes do not contribute to the initial loss of pulsatile GH secretion. Rather, it appears that the suppression of GH secretion in fasting may occur in response to an elevation in fasting levels of FFA or physiological stress. Observations highlight a divergent role for GH in modulating FFA release between man and mouse.
Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring selective binding to the GHS-R1a receptor via acylated ghrelin. Complete loss of preproghrelin-derived signalling (through deletion of the Ghrl gene) contributes to a decline in peak GH release; however, the selective contribution of endogenous acyl-ghrelin to pulsatile GH release remains to be established. We assessed the pulsatile release of GH in ad lib. fed male germline goat(-/-) mice, extending measures to include mRNA for key hypothalamic regulators of GH release, and peripheral factors that are modulated relative to GH release. The amount of GH released was reduced in young goat(-/-) mice compared to age-matched wild-type mice, whereas pulse frequency and irregularity increased. Altered GH release did not coincide with alterations in hypothalamic Ghrh, Srif, Npy or Ghsr mRNA expression, or pituitary GH content, suggesting that loss of Goat does not compromise canonical mechanisms that contribute to pituitary GH production and release. Although loss of Goat resulted in an irregular pattern of GH release (characterised by an increase in the number of GH pulses observed during extended secretory events), this did not contribute to a change in the expression of sexually dimorphic GH-dependent liver genes. Of interest, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were elevated in goat(-/-) mice. This rise in circulating levels of IGF-1 was correlated with an increase in GH pulse frequency, suggesting that sustained or increased IGF-1 release in goat(-/-) mice may occur in response to altered GH release patterning. Our observations demonstrate that germline loss of Goat alters GH release and patterning. Although the biological relevance of altered GH secretory patterning remains unclear, we propose that this may contribute to sustained IGF-1 release and growth in goat(-/-) mice.
Measures of pulsatile GH secretion require frequent collection and analysis of blood samples at regular intervals. Due to blood volume constraints, repeat measures of circulating levels of GH in mice remain challenging. Consequently, few observations exist in which the pulsatile pattern of GH secretion in mice have been characterized. To address this, we developed a technique for the collection and analysis of circulating levels of GH at regular and frequent intervals in freely moving mice. This was achieved through the development of a sensitive assay for the detection of GH in small (2 mu l) quantities of whole blood. The specificity and accuracy of this assay was validated following guidelines established for single-laboratory validation as specified by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. We incorporated an established method for tail-clip blood sample collection to determine circulating levels of GH secretion in 36 whole blood samples collected consecutively over a period of 6 h. Resulting measures were characterized by peak secretion periods and interpulse stable baseline secretion periods. Periods characterized by elevated whole blood GH levels consisted of multicomponent peaks. Deconvolution analysis of resulting measures confirmed key parameters associated with pulsatile GH secretion. We show a striking decrease in pulsatile GH secretion in mice after 12-18 h of fasting. This model is necessary to characterize the pulsatile profile of GH secretion in mice and will significantly contribute to current attempts to clarify mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of GH secretion. (Endocrinology 152: 3165-3171, 2011)
We have examined the mechanisms underlying reduced circulating GH concentrations in the obese human. Computer-assisted (deconvolution) analysis was used to determine endogenous GH secretory and clearance rates quantitatively from entire 24-h plasma GH concentration profiles. These analyses revealed that the half-life (t) of endogenous GH was significantly shorter in obese (11.7 ± 1.6 min) than in normal weight subjects (15.5 ± 0.81 min; P